Kids in the Midwest will get more blood screenings under EPA plan to deal with lead threat

By: - October 28, 2022 11:37 am

A worker waters a property in the Omaha Lead Superfund Site that’s been remediated for high levels of lead in the soil. (Photo by Abiola Kosoko)

A joint investigation by The Missouri Independent and the Midwest Newsroom.

A study shows about half of children in the United States have detectable levels of lead in their blood, despite federal regulations that ban or restrict its use.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has adopted a new strategy to reduce exposure, particularly in low-income and communities of color that are disproportionately affected.

The EPA on Thursday released a “Strategy to Reduce Lead Exposures and Disparities in U.S. Communities,” a plan that the agency said is the first of its kind.

It outlines new ways the EPA plans to work with other agencies and reduce exposure to lead to improve government collaboration. It includes plans to increase blood lead level screenings in children, train people for careers in lead remediation and engage with the public by publishing measures and milestones on the EPA website and taking public input on projects.

“This for the first time represents the agency looking not only to limit the amount of exposure that children and others have to lead, but in fact to make significant improvements and advancements with regards to environmental justice by also addressing disparities, long standing disparities, in terms of who finds themselves adversely affected by lead,” said Carlton Waterhouse, deputy assistant administrator for the EPA’s Office of Land and Emergency Management.

The plan builds upon decades of lead regulation. Housing built before 1978, when lead paint was banned for residential use, has the high chance of having lead paint. Older lead service lines for water are in the process of being replaced but there are challenges locating them. Lead in soil from smelters and leaded gasoline was phased out and banned in cars in 1996 by the Clean Air Act. Leaded fuel, however, is still used in smaller aircrafts today.

The Midwest has some of the highest numbers of detectable levels of lead in children’s blood in the country, according to a study published last year by The Journal of the American Medical Association Pediatrics. In Kansas, that number rises to 65%; in Iowa it’s 76%; Missouri it’s 82%, and in Nebraska it’s 83%. Those are all higher than the study’s national average. The World Health Organization says there is no safe level of lead.

Part of the strategy will identify communities with lead exposure and focus on ways to reduce those levels and improve health outcomes.

“So we’re very focused on going towards those places that have hot spots, going towards those places and determining what the dominant and primary sources of that are in those communities,” Waterhouse said.

The EPA has 15 large lead Superfund sites in Region 7 that includes Nebraska, Kansas, Iowa and Missouri. The region includes the Lead Belt, largely in Southern Missouri, and has a history of lead mining and smelting. The wait times for remediation have been lengthy with work still being done at sites several decades after being designated a Superfund site.

“The Office of Land and Emergency Management that oversees the Superfund program was on a very limited budget,” Waterhouse said, describing the backlog of work needing to be done. Now with the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law and reinstating the Superfund tax, he believes there is funding to expedite the cleanup of sites.

The plan outlines policy changes including reviewing the current guidelines to Residential Soil Lead Guidance for Contaminated Sites that could lead to reducing the reference value for remediation of lead in soil. Currently that level is 400 parts per million (ppm) for residential play areas and was set more than two decades ago. Since then, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has lowered its elevated blood lead reference value twice while the EPA’s values have remained unchanged.

“The new soil lead guidance is going to update our old guidance which is decades old and reflects the latest science and is going to call for, we’re expecting a new screening level to be developed in that soil lead guidance,” Waterhouse said.

The deadline to evaluate that number is June 30, 2023, which is listed in the strategic outline.

About this story

This story comes from the Midwest Newsroom, an investigative journalism collaboration including IPR, KCUR 89.3, Nebraska Public Media News, St. Louis Public Radio and NPR.

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Samantha Horton
Samantha Horton

Samantha Horton is a reporting fellow with NPR Midwest Newsroom and The Missouri Independent. She most recently spent four years covering business and the economy for Indiana Public Broadcasting. Previously, she was a reporter with Side Effects Public Media and WNIN. Her work has won awards, including a Regional Edward R. Murrow, and has been featured on NPR.

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